Skip to main content


 

PERSOALAN BERKENAAN UBAT?

 

Talian bebas tol:
1800 – 88 – 6722

Pusat Panggilan Farmasi Kebangsaan (NPCC)
 

Waktu operasi: 8 pagi – 5 petang
(Isnin – Jumaat, kecuali Cuti Umum)

 

Laman web:
Sistem Pengurusan Aduan Awam Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia


 

DRUG INFORMATION ENQUIRIES?

 

Toll free line:
1800 – 88 – 6722


National Pharmacy Call Centre (NPCC)

 

Operating hours: 8 am – 5 pm
(Monday – Friday except Public Holiday)

 

Website:
Sistem Pengurusan Aduan Awam Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia

 

Dr Yvonne Khoo

Pegawai Farmasi

ARTICLE


 

Nurul Liyana binti Samsuddin

Pegawai Farmasi

ARTICLE


 

Mohamad Azlan Mohamed Sakri

Pegawai Farmasi

ARTICLE


Acne

ACNE

What is Acne?

A skin problem resulting in bumps on the face, chest or back, that form small “white heads” of pus or sometimes “black heads” or red lumps.


What Causes Acne?

Genetics, hormones, bacteria, clogged pores and inflammation work together to cause acne. The hair follicles, or pores in your skin contain sebaceous glands, which produce sebum. The more sebum there is, the more chances of having acne.

When the pore gets clogged with too much sebum and keratin (dead skin cells), it forms a plug called comedones. If the clogged pore stays close but bulges out from the skin, we call it a whitehead. If the clogged pore stays open and the top surface darkens, we call it a blackhead.


Aggravating Factors

  • Hormonal
  • Psychological stress
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Environmental factors:
  • High humidity causing swelling of the skin
  • Cosmetics especially certain moisturizers, foundation and pomades
  • Working with oil and greases (e.g. cooking hot chips)
  • Clothing that rubs
  • Medications such as certain contraceptive pills and medicines



Symptoms

  • Skin rash or lesions on the face, chest, neck, upper back, shoulders or other areas
  • Comedones (whiteheads or blackheads depending on the colour)
  • Redness of the lesions or skin around a lesion
  • Inflammation around the skin eruptions
  • Crusting of skin eruptions
  • Scarring of the skin
  • Pigmentation


Complications of Acne

  • Permanent facial scars
  • Psychological damage to self-esteem, confidence, personality, social life



Self Management

  • Wash your face with a mild soap and water or an antiseptic wash twice a day and pat dry with soft towel.
  • Comb or pull your hair back to keep your hair out of the face.
  • Use a water-based moisturizer (ask your general practitioner or pharmacist).
  • Avoid applying oily cosmetics such as foundation or sunscreen.
  • Do not pick, scratch, and squeeze pimples, blackheads or whiteheads. This could scar your skin.
  • Don't rest your face on your hands. This irritates the skin of the face.
  • Use an effective acne preparation that stops pores from clogging and loosen blackheads and whiteheads.
  • Follow instructions on how to use acne preparations carefully
  • Discontinue using preparation if severe irritation results.
  • Wear loose light clothes if acne is on your back or chest


Treatment

SELF MEDICATION GUIDE- Medication for Acne

(Please click on the medication name below for further information):


PRESCRIPTION-ONLY MEDICATION

  • Isotretinoin
  • Oral Antibiotics
    • Erythromycin
    • Tetracycline
    • Doxycycline
    • Minocycline
  • Topical Retinoids
    • Adapalene
    • Tretinoin


References

  1. Website: http://www.derm-infonet.com/acnenet/
  2. Website: http://www.skincarephysicians.com/acnenet/prescriptmeds.html
  3. Website: http://www.skincarephysicians.com/acnenet/treatment.html
  4. The Reader’s Digest Family Guide to Alternative Medicine.

Blood Cholesterol

HIGH BLOOD CHOLESTEROL
 
 
Blood cholesterol levels rise if we become overweight or eat a high fat diet.
 
See your doctor to have a blood test for cholesterol levels if you:
 
  • Have a family history of heart disease
  • Suffer from high blood pressure
  • Suffer from diabetes
  • Are a smoker
  • Are overweight or obese
  • Lead a sedentary lifestyle
 
 
CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES
 
LDL cholesterol :
 
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carry cholesterol to body tissue, but excess LDL cholesterol can block vessels, hardening the arteries. LDL cholesterol is called ‘bad’ cholesterol.
 
HDL cholesterol:
 
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) help remove cholesterol from the blood. HDL cholesterol is called ‘good’ cholesterol.
 
Triglycerides:
 
Triglycerides are carried by very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Excess triglycerides build up in body tissues as fat.                   
 
                                                 
RISKS
 
A high cholesterol level can increase the risks of blocked blood vessels, causing:
 
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Angina (chest pain)
  • High blood pressure
  • Kidney failure
 
 
SELF CARE
 
a) Weight reduction
b) Stop smoking
c) Moderation in alcohol intake
d) Eat a healthy diet
 
 
TREATMENT
 
Doctors may prescribe oral medications to control the fat and cholesterol in cases where blood cholesterol cannot be controlled by diet and lifestyle modification. In order to be more effective the person still needs to control the fat and cholesterol in the diet.
 
There are several groups of drugs for high blood cholesterol:
 
1. Bile Acid Sequestrants (Resin)
 
e.g : Cholestyramine
 

 

2. HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins)
 
e.g : Lovastatin
         Pravastatin
         Simvastatin
         Fluvastatin
 
3. Fibric Acid Derivatives (Fibrates)
 
e.g : Gemfibrozil
          Ciprofibrate
          Fenofibrate
          Bezafibrate
 
 
4. Nicotinic Acid (Niacin) and its derivatives
 
 
REFERENCES
 
  1. Self Care Pharmacy
  2. Consensus Statement On Management Of Hyperlipidemia
  3. A handbook on eating the healthy way
  4. Australian Pharmacy Self Care 2008
  5. Website: Self Care Guide, Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia - http://www.pharmacy.gov.my/self_care_guide

Asthma

 
ASTHMA
 
Asthma is a chronic airway disease. It can cause tightness of the chest and shortness of breath. Asthma can lead to death if not treated or managed well.
 
Signs and symptoms:
 
  • Cough
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Wheezing sound
  • Chest tightness
  • Face and lips turn pale and blue
  • Increased pulse rate
 
All symptoms can worsen during late nights, early mornings and during exercise.

Each patient would have different trigger factors for asthma attacks. You need to identify your trigger factors before you can work to prevent it. 

Common triggers:
  • Allergens such as pest, pollens and pets such as cats and dogs
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Virus infection such as flu
  • Weather conditions such as cold air, changes in temperature, and thunderstorms
  • Occupational hazards such as chemicals and wood dust
  • Certain medications
 
SELF CARE
You can lead a normal and active life with good management of your asthma.
Reduce, remove or avoid your trigger factors to prevent asthma attacks.
 
TREATMENT
Your doctor will prescribe one or more medications depending on the severity of your asthma.
 
  • Reliever medicinerelaxes the airway muscles and makes it easier to breathe when you have asthma symptoms. If you find you are using your reliever more often than 3 times a week, you should see your doctor. 
  • A preventer medicinehelps to reduce the inflammation in your airways. It should be taken every day, even when you have no symptoms. Preventers significantly reduce the chance of you having an asthma attack, even when you come across an asthma trigger.
  • Symptom controller:Itrelaxes the airway muscles for up to 12 hours, helping to reduce the symptoms of asthma. Symptom controllers are only used by people taking preventer medicines.
  • A combination medicationcontains both a preventer and a symptom controller in one inhaler.
 
VISIT A DOCTOR IF:
 
  • Your symptoms worsen (for example: severe shortness of breath, inability to speak comfortably, lips turn blue or greyish).
 
  • Wheezing, chest tightness or shortness of breath continues after using reliever medication or returns within minutes of taking reliever medication.
 
 
REFERENCES
 
1.    Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) : A Pocket Guide for Physicians & Nurses 2011
2.   Australian Asthma Management Handbook 2006
3.    GINA Asthma Patient Guide June 2007

Hypertension

 
HYPERTENSION
 
WHAT IS HYPERTENSION?
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is defined as a blood pressure level of 140/90 mmHg or higher. Normal blood pressure is less than 120 mmHg systolic and less than 80 mmHg diastolic.
 
CAUSES OF HYPERTENSION
 
9 out of 10 people who have hypertension do not have any apparent reason for it. However, people who are overweight, smoke, eat salty and fatty food regularly, consume alcohol excessively, physically inactive, suffer frequent stress, or have a family history of hypertension are generally at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure.
 
COMPLICATIONS
Common complications of uncontrolled blood pressure are as below:
·         Stroke - Very high pressure can cause a break in a weakened blood vessel, which then bleeds in the brain. If a blood clot blocks one of the narrowed arteries, it can also cause a stroke.
·         Eyesight impairment - High blood pressure can cause blood vessels in the eye to burst or bleed. Vision may become blurred or otherwise impaired and can result in blindness.
·         Atherosclerosis - As people get older, arteries throughout the body ‘harden’, especially those in the heart, brain, and kidneys. High blood pressure is associated with these ‘stiffer’ arteries. This in turn, causes the heart and kidneys to work harder.
·         Kidney disease - The kidneys act as filters to rid the body of wastes. Over time, high blood pressure can cause the kidneys to filter less fluid, and waste builds up in the body. When the kidneys fail, medical treatment (dialysis) or a kidney transplant may be needed.
·         Heart attack - The arteries bring oxygen-carrying blood to the heart muscle. If the heart cannot get enough oxygen, chest pain, also known as ‘angina’, can occur. A heart attack occurs when the flow of blood to heart muscle is blocked.
·         Congestive heart failure - A serious condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply the body's needs. Sluggish movement of blood will cause water retention in the body especially in the lungs, abdomen and feet.
 
SELF CARE
You can prevent high blood pressure by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Taking steps to lower your blood pressure can reduce your risk of getting heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure.
 
Tips to a healthy lifestyle:
 
·         maintain a healthy weight
·         be physically active
·         follow a healthy eating plan
·         drink alcoholic beverages in moderation
·         quit smoking
·         reduce your stress level
 
 
 
TREATMENT
 
In cases where lifestyle changes are not enough, drug therapy may be needed. Healthy lifestyle changes and drug therapy must all work hand-in-hand to take effect.
 
Medications that are used to treat hypertension are called antihypertensives, as listed below:
 
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Beta blockers
  • Calcium-channel antagonists
  • Diuretics
  • Angiotensin II antagonists
  • Alpha blockers
  • Combine alpha/beta blockers
  • Centrally acting drugs
  • Direct vasodilators
  • Combined drugs
 
 
REFERENCES
 
1.    Clinical Practice Guideline/Consensus, Malaysian Hypertension Consensus Guideline, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2008.
2.    Malaysian Statistics on Medicine, Pharmaceutical Service Division and the Clinical Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, 2005.
3.    Medicines Compendium, Datapharm Communications Ltd., 2002
 
 

JOIN US

QUESTION ON MEDICINES

MEDICINES & HEALTH ISSUES

OUR PROGRAMMES 

CONTACT US

PHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES PROGRAMME
LOT 36, JALAN PROFESOR DIRAJA UNGKU AZIZ, 46200,
PETALING JAYA, SELANGOR

NATIONAL PHARMACY CALL CENTRE (NPCC)

Download Instagram video Instagram Downloader

Disclaimer : Pharmaceutical Services Programme, Ministry of Health Malaysia shall not
be liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use of information in this portal.

Copyright © 2008 - 2019 Know Your Medicine. All Rights Reserved


Administrative Login - Sitemap